- Central government revenues, 1650-1913, from Mark Dincecco, "Fiscal Centralization, Limited Government, and Public Revenues in Europe, 1650-1913." Journal of Economic History, 69: 48-103, 2009.
- Austria-Hungary, Britain, France, Netherlands, Prussia, and Spain, 1650-1913
- Belgium, Denmark, Italy, Portugal, and Sweden, 1800-1913
- Data sources and notes
- IPUMS International (Minnesota Population Center): Integrated Public Use Microdata Series
13 countries, 47 censuses, 143 million person records
- IPUMS USA (Minnesota Population Center):
Integrated Public Use Microdata Series
Full US censuses of population, etc.